Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee, Tawakkol Karman
Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her non-violent efforts to promote peace and her struggle for women’s rights. She is the first female democratically elected head of state in Africa. Johnson Sirleaf came to power in 2005, creating peace and economic progress in the country. She strengthened women’s rights, expanded freedom of speech and became an example for other African leaders.
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf had studied in the US, where she took a Master’s degree in Public Administration. She returned to her home country and served as Minister of Finance, but the government was overthrown in a military coup in 1980. Forced into exile, she worked for the UN Development Program for Africa and the Development Fund for Women.
Johnson Sirleaf lost the presidential election in 1997 to the corrupt Charles Taylor, but after he was forced to flee the country, she won the presidential election in 2005.
Leymah Gbowee was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her non-violent efforts to promote peace and her struggle for women’s rights.
In 1990 civil war broke out in Liberia. Leymah Gbowee underwent training in trauma therapy in order to take care of traumatised child soldiers. In 2002, she organised the grass roots movement, Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace, which held meetings at which Christian and Muslim women jointly presented a non-violent message of peace. These demonstrations were instrumental in pressuring President Charles Taylor to sign a peace agreement in 2003.
Leymah Gbowee then spearheaded efforts to mobilise Liberian women to vote for Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in the 2005 presidential elections. This support was a crucial factor in Sirleaf’s election victory. In 2008, Gbowee played a key role in the award-winning documentary film “Pray the Devil Back to Hell” on women’s unique struggle during the Liberian civil war.
Tawakkol Karman, a Yemeni journalist, was the first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize from the Arab world. She shared the award with two Liberian women, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee, for their non-violent efforts to promote peace and their struggle for women’s rights.
She led several protests against the dictatorial regime of President Saleh, calling for democracy and freedom of speech. She founded the organisation Women Journalists without Chains, and was imprisoned and persecuted on account of her active engagement.
Tawakkol Karman came forward as a courageous leadership figure during the Arab Spring in 2011 and was praised for her efforts to promote reconciliation between Sjia and Sunni Muslims and between Islam and other religions. Like Iranian Shirin Ebadi, Peace Prize laureate for 2003, she maintained that Islam is no obstacle to the full acceptance of women in every sphere of society.